Tuesday, September 29, 2015

A BRIEF HISTORY OF CHAMPAGNE

As midnight approaches on December 31st, more than a few of us will crack open a bottle or two of champagne to help toast the New Year. With a few choice facts about the bubbly stuff, you can look knowledgeable rather than just tipsy when you drain your flute. Here are a few little nuggets you can share with fellow revelers.
WHAT EXACTLY IS CHAMPAGNE?
Strictly speaking, champagne is a sparkling wine that comes from the Champagne region of northeastern France. If it's a bubbly wine from another region, it's sparkling wine, not champagne. While many people use the term "champagne" generically for any sparkling wine, the French have maintained their legal right to call their wines champagne for over a century. The Treaty of Madrid, signed in 1891, established this rule, and the Treaty of Versailles reaffirmed it.
The European Union helps protect this exclusivity now, although certain American producers can still generically use "champagne" on their labels if they were using the term before early 2006.
HOW IS CHAMPAGNE MADE?
Sparkling wines can be made in a variety of ways, but traditional champagne comes to life by a process called the methode Champenoise. Champagne starts its life like any normal wine. The grapes are harvested, pressed, and allowed to undergo a primary fermentation. The acidic results of this process are then blended and bottled with a bit of yeast and sugar so it can undergo a secondary fermentation in the bottle. (It's this secondary fermentation that gives champagne its bubbles.) This new yeast starts doing its work on the sugar, and then dies and becomes what's known as lees. The bottles are then stored horizontally so the wine can "age on lees" for 15 months or more.
After this aging, winemakers turn the bottles upside down so the lees can settle to the bottom. Once the dead yeast has settled, producers open the bottles to remove the yeast, add a bit of sugar known as dosage to determine the sweetness of the champagne, and slip a cork onto the bottle.
WHAT'S SO SPECIAL ABOUT THE CHAMPAGNE REGION?
Several factors make the chardonnay, pinot noir, and pinot meunier grapes grown in the Champagne region particularly well suited for crafting delicious wines. The northern location makes it a bit cooler than France's other wine-growing regions, which gives the grapes the proper acidity for sparkling wine production. Moreover, the porous, chalky soil of the area -- the result of large earthquakes millions of years ago -- aids in drainage.
DO I HAVE TO BUY CHAMPAGNE TO GET GOOD SPARKLING WINE?
Not at all. Although many champagnes are delightful, most of the world's wine regions make tasty sparkling wines of their own. You can find highly regarded sparkling wines from California, Spain, Italy, Australia, and other areas without shelling out big bucks for Dom Perignon.

SPEAKING OF DOM PERIGNON, WHO WAS THIS GUY?
Contrary to popular misconception, the namesake of the famous brand didn't invent champagne. But Perignon, a Benedictine monk who worked as cellar master at an abbey near Epernay during the 17th and 18th centuries, did have quite an impact on the champagne industry. In Perignon's day, sparkling wine wasn't really a sought-after beverage. In fact, the bubbles were considered to be something of a flaw, and early production methods made producing the wine somewhat dangerous. (Imprecise temperature controls could lead to fermentation starting again after the wine was in the bottle. If one bottle in a cellar exploded and had its cork shoot out, a chain reaction would start.) Perignon helped standardize production methods to avoid these explosions, and he also added two safety features to his wines: thicker glass bottles that better withstood pressure and a rope snare that helped keep corks in place.
WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN BRUT AND EXTRA BRUT?
You'll see these terms on champagne labels to describe how sweet the good stuff in the bottle is. As mentioned above, a bit of sugar known as dosage is added to the bottle right before its corked, and these terms describe exactly how much sugar went in. Extra brut has less than six grams of sugar per liter added, while brut contains less than 15 grams of additional sugar per liter. Several other classifications exist, but drier champagnes are more common.
WHY DO ATHLETES SPRAY EACH OTHER WITH CHAMPAGNE AFTER WINNING TITLES?

Throughout its history, champagne has been a celebratory drink that's made appearances at coronations of kings and the launching of ships. However, the bubbly-spraying throw downs that now accompany athletic victories are a much more recent development. When Dan Gurney and A.J. Foyt won the grueling 24 Hours of Le Mans race in 1967, they ascended the winner's podium with a bottle of champagne in hand. Gurney looked down and saw team owner Carroll Shelby and Ford Motors CEO Henry Ford II standing with some journalists and decided to have a bit of fun. Gurney gave the bottle a shake and sprayed the crowd, and a new tradition was born.

CIINNOVATIVES JOB PORTAL


                                                                   

CI Innovatives was established in the year 2007 and is in the field of recruitment of workers for national and overseas jobs.  CI Innovatives has served numerous companies in Asia and the Middle East. We specialize in deploying only the best skilled and semi-skilled workers to meet the needs of our principals. In our short time of existence, we have assisted several domestic workers find employment abroad.

CI Innovatives’s team of qualified and efficient staff have hands-on experience in the recruitment and selection of qualified personnel for the various requirements of various companies abroad. As a prominent and reliable agency in the recruitment of Hospitality workers for work overseas, we have been active in the other fields of Retail, Construction and Information Technology as well.

We scrutinize each and every resume or bio-data received and we short-list the candidates based on merit and then invite them for an interview – personal or telephonic. We carry out an intensive analysis of the job specification and match the candidates to meet the employer-employee equation, to avoid any disappointment due to a mismatch.








HOSPITALITY STAFF HIRING



Department:Housekeeping
Salary Description: AED 1600 plus other standard benefits
Posted:28/09/2015
Vacancy Number: 1019

Description:
This Hotel is perfectly positioned in the heart of the city, delivering the unexpected luxury of space, impeccable service and sophisticated style. Loved by Royalty and the local cognoscenti for the warmth of its service and the sophistication of the aesthetic, this Hotel offers some of the most spacious rooms in the city – generously proportioned and sumptuously appointed.
Location: Dubai
Industry: Hospitality / Tourism / Recreative
Staff Level: Rank & File
Education requirement:
Industry experience required: 2 years
Experience in the same role: 2 years
Salary: AED 1600
Other Benefits: Service charge, accommodation, transportation, medical insurance, flight ticket, meals
Details:
Assists and ensures that all hotel guests are treated accordingly, during pick and transfer.
1.Handling guest arrival with pick up request, and arrange the transportation.
2.Assist with guest luggage as and when required.
3.Give all hotel facilities information to the guest and assists them in to the car.
4.Inform reception manager, concierge or guest relation officers when VIP on their way to the hotel.
5.Be present at all scheduled flight landings and assist incoming guests with baggage clearance and directing them to transport facilities.
6.Stand by at the arrival terminal for every flight arrival.
7.Write all the additional instruction for guests or information about guest arrival or departure in the logbook and should be transferred to the expected arrival list of each airport rep.
8.If the pickup is not arranged by the hotel then, Guest should be shown only to the recommended taxi or limousine.
9.Escort the guest to the official car rental and deals with authorized car rental staff.
10.Any changes on arrival and departure flight must be reported to Front Office manager and chief concierge.
11.If there is a problem while on duty without the supervisor, must be discussed and report to front office manager.
12.Responsible for good service and maintain close relationship with all official sectors at the airport and most of all, maintain a spirit of team work among the hotel’s personnel. Submit names and arrival flight numbers to meeting service staff.
13.Ensures the neat of appearance and grooming of airport representative officers.
14.Anything that is related to operation as well as special cases of leaving must be noted down in the logbook, and also have to have the written approval of Hospitality Manager or Chief Concierge.
15.Must follow the working schedule properly. Any changes to be reported and approved by front office manager, assistant front office manager and assistant managers.
16.Maintain detailed knowledge of all facilities and services offered by the hotel.
17.VIP and VVIP guests to be welcomed at the airport and ensure transportation is arranged.
18.Maintain a good relationship with airline personnel, immigration and custom officers under the guidance of the Manager.



Rixos Group Hiring For Dubai

Hiring On Flowing Post :

1) Waiters – no of vacancy -50-salary-26100 plus tips n service charge
2) Waiteress –no of vacancy -40-salary -26100 plus tip n service charge
3) Bartender – no of vacancy 20- salary -37800 plus tip n service charge
4) Hostess – no of vacancy – 10 – salary -34200 plus tip n service charge
5) Life guard – no of vacancy -10 – salary -39600 plus tip n service charge
6) House keeping attendant -no of vacancy -60 – salary- 26100 plus tip n service charge
7) Front office –no of vacancy -5-salary – between 27000 to 36000 plus tip n service charge

Urgent notification :-
1) Employment visa will be provided by the company
2) Food+ transport + accommodation provide by the company
3) Medical insurance provide by the company
4) Contract duration 2 yrs
5) Diploma and degree must for all client

Documentation :-
1) All candidates should carry their original passport
2) Hard copy of cv and all documents
3) Certificates & 15 white background photos



Sunday, September 20, 2015

TOP 10 WEIRD WINE INGREDIENTS

Wine most commonly comes from grapes, but some winemakers have been pushing the boundaries of decency by making wine with much more than just fruit.



We recently revealed the weirdest ingredients that have been used in brewing beer, and that was definitely not for the faint-hearted.
And earlier this week we reported that tiger bone wine is on sale in China and then db’s senior writer, Lucy Shaw, drank some snake wine at an event in London.
But even these exotic ingredients fall well short of the weirdness factor of bear bile and the stomach churning Korean "faeces” wine…


Although not strictly ingredients nor added for flavour, some strange things may have gone through a wine prior to bottling during the fining process. The point of fining is to add something that will create an enzymatic bond with particles in the unfinished wine that cannot or are unlikely to be taken out during filtration.
In the past the rather terrifying sounding “blood powder” was used. Now egg whites, casein, gelatin and the famous isinglass (made from fish swim bladders) are more common.

Other fining agents include bentonite clay and charcoal – which is apparently particularly good at removing phenols that contribute to off-colouration and bad odours.


If people will eat naga chillies then drinking nettle wine might not seem too strange, maybe. But aficionados of nettle wine, which is popular among home winemakers, will tell you that while the plant is known for its stinging properties, those do not transfer into the wine.
Nettle wine is actually made using the small flowering buds that appear at the top of the plant. These are edible, although it is recommended that anyone picking these buds wears gloves to avoid hours of pain and itching. It is often advised that those making nettle wine infuse it with extra ingredients such as ginger root, parsley or lemon thyme as straight nettle wine “lacks character”. The good news is that you don’t need to have a glass of dock leaf wine on hand when drinking nettle wine.

Like chocolate wine, cannabis wine has become popular in the US with a number of Californian winemakers producing this potent drop. Cabernet Sauvignon is proving to be the grape variety of choice.
According to Crane Carter, president of the Napa Valley Marijuana Growers, pot wine delivers a quicker high than pot brownies, and the combination of alcohol and marijuana produces “an interesting little buzz.”


According to John Wright, a forager author, birch sap tastes almost exactly like water, “but the freshest water you have ever tasted, with just a hint of sweetness”. In Sweden, Sav winemakers produce a sparkling wine using a birch sap recipe from 1785.
Sav Sparkling is produced according to the “méthode traditionelle” and is fermented for two years in the bottle.

Sav says its sparkling wine tastes of “citrus, some sour dough bread and nuts. Weak almond scent, and much herbs. Long, slightly nutty balanced aftertaste of forest, fungus, herbs and apples.”



A Chilean wine has been created using a meteorite formed during the birth of the solar system. The Cabernet Sauvignon called Meteorito has been developed by Ian Hutcheon, an Englishman working in Chile.
The meteorite, which is believed to have crashed into the Atacama Desert in northern Chile around 6,000 years ago, is submerged in the wine during the fermentation process.
Hutcheon believes the meteorite gives the wine a “livelier taste”



As reported earlier this week in db, tiger bone tonic wine is still available in China, despite the practice being illegal in the country since 1993.
Tiger tonic wines are produced by leaving tiger bones to soak in the wine for varying lengths of time, the bones are then removed before bottling.
The wine, which in China is believed to have medicinal properties, sells for between £65-£500 a bottle depending on how long the tiger bone was in contact with the wine for.


Snake and scorpion wines are found throughout China and South East Asia and are made by infusing the reptile in question in rice wine, but they can also be infused in grain alcohol. Sometimes snakes and scorpions are combined in the same wine and lizards and geckos can be infused in wine as well.
Like tiger bone wine, snake wine is believed to have medicinal properties helping with everything from eyesight to hair loss and sexual performance. Venomous snakes are often used and are left to steep in the wine for many months.
Other parts of the snake are also used in wine including blood, bile and gall bladder.


The bear bile used in this wine has to be fresh and is obtained from live bears, a practice which has drawn much criticism from animal rights campaigners as the bears are often kept in very distressing conditions.
The bile is then mixed with the wine and Chinese cassia, jujube, orange peel and fennel seed are added, this presumably makes the wine taste better.

This is another wine thought to have medicinal benefits, with Pingbian Bear Bile Wine claiming it can “help keep the liver and gallbladder healthy, dissolve gallstones, reduce inflammation and swelling, relieve pain, and clear away heat and toxic materials. It also has certain curative effects for high blood pressure, hyperlipemia, and cardiovascular disease.”

According to traditional Chinese medicine, for deer penis to retain its beneficial properties it must – horrifically – be extracted from the deer while it is still alive.
It is claimed that prior to the 2008 Beijing Olympics athletes were told not to drink deer penis wine, because it may contain certain banned substances including ephedrine. The wine is said to be an effective remedy for athletic injuries, and other benefits are thought to be enhanced sexual virility, aiding joints and making pregnant women (and their baby) stronger.

The wine sells for anything from US$12 a glass up to $450 for a bottle and is also thought, by some, to be an aphrodisiac

source http://www.thedrinksbusiness.com/

INVENTION OF CORKSCREWS


There is evidence of wine production as early as 6000 years ago but corkscrews are a more recent invention.
The corkscrew, like so many other inventions, was borne out of necessity. For as long as we have sold wine in glass bottles sealed with cork stoppers, consumers have struggled to easily remove those corks. As soon as the earliest glass bottles arrived in late seventeenth-century England, inventors began dreaming up instruments to ease the removal of corks.
The earliest reference to a corkscrew was noted in the 1680s. These crude instruments — "steel worms" — were variations on musket barrel cleaning tools (gun worms) manufactured by gunsmiths. Over the next 300 years inventors would file hundreds of patents, relentlessly improving upon these first adapted corkscrews. Here's a brief history of the most important advances.
Prior to the 18th century, wine was mainly stored in wood casks, and in older times – clay jars or animal skins – and served in pitchers at the table. Stoppers, often made of wood and sealed with wax, protruded from the container. The irregular nature and expense of hand blown bottles limited their use. Circa 1728, new techniques in glass blowing allowed factories to produce glass bottles in uniform sizes. A cork plug set flush with the rim of the bottle neck turned out to be ideal for keeping liquid contents in, and air and contaminants out. Wine, beer and other products–perfumes, inks and medicines–began to be available in bottles with corks beginning in the second quarter of the 18th century. The average person used a bottle stoppered with a cork several times a day.

An Englishman, Samuel Henshall, is credited with registering the earliest known patent for a corkscrew in 1795. The design was based on a spiral tipped tool, known as a cartridge remover, created for use with muzzle loading guns in the mid 17th century. The cartridge remover turned out to be useful for removing cork stoppers as well. Henshall’s design featured a disk of metal on the shank. Pressure from the disk on the rim of the bottle helped break the seal between the cork and glass in conjunction with the twisting motion of the tool. The same 18th century factories often produced both corkscrews and cartridge pullers, cementing the historical relationship between the two tools.
Corkscrews consist of two main sections – the handle and the “worm” which is twisted into the cork. There are several types of worms but most fall into two categories. The auger style– shaped like a screw, and the helical style – a tapered rod wound around a hollow axis. The auger removes material as it twists into the cork, and is more likely to create particles that drop into the bottle’s contents. The helical style burrows into the cork and temporarily displaces the material. Early aristocratic examples can be found made of gold and silver but steel became the material of choice for the worm due to its strength and durability. The design of the handle was limited only by imagination. From simple finger loops and wooden cylinders, to tusks and antlers, fish, fowl, animals and objects of all types in a variety of materials, there is a dizzying array of styles to explore. By the mid 19th century the corkscrew became a vehicle for advertisements. Designs of all eras show remarkable wit and humor. A popular early 20th century model featured a caricature of Senator Volstead who championed Prohibition.

Meanwhile inventors were busy creating a better corkscrew. New mechanics were developed throughout the 19th century. The “bell cap,” was a variation on Henshall’s design, which pressed downwards on the bottle as the cork was lifted up. The prong style, better known today as an Ah-So, is still the best for dealing with older, fragile corks. Compound levers with names like “Tric Trac” and “Zig Zag” became popular in the late 1880s. The 20th century brought us the air cartridge “wine popper” and the 21st century gave us the “rabbit” a variation on the classic lever.

If you are traveling in Europe, there are museum collections of antique corkscrews in France, Germany, Spain, Italy and Greece. Luckily you don’t have to go that far to whet your curiosity. Napa Valley is home to the collection of Brother Timothy, the well known Christian Brothers winemaker. Brother Timothy, who passed away in 2004, began collecting corkscrews in 1949 and amassed approximately 1650 at the peak of his collecting.

Brother Timothy is fondly remembered in Napa Valley as a kind and generous man with a playful sense of humor and a gift for winemaking. Sources claim he started collecting to discover the best corkscrew design, and from there he was hooked. As the collection grew, he often loaned the pieces to museums and for marketing displays as well as gifting corkscrews to family and friends. Occasionally he sold the more valuable pieces and and donated the proceeds to the Christian Brothers’ educational funds. In 1974 he was a founding member of the International Correspondence of Corkscrew Addicts (ICCA), a corkscrew collecting group that is still active today.

Today, approximately 800-900 pieces of the collection remain, most of which are on display at The Culinary Institute of America at Greystone in St. Helena. A few of Brother Timothy’s personal favorites remain in the De La Salle Institute archives in Napa. Visitors are welcome to view the Brother Timothy Corkscrew Collection at the CIA daily between 10am and 6pm. One warning–we predict that, just like Brother Timothy, you’ll be addicted to corkscrew collecting.
SOURCE-(https://www.cask23.com)

WINE GLOSSARIES (U-V-W-Y-Z)

UC (Fr.) Short for Union Coopérative or other titles
denoting a local or regional cooperative.
UC DAVIS The University of California’s oenology
department at Davis.
ULLAGE (Fr.) 1. The space between the top of the
wine and the head of the bottle or cask. An old
bottle of wine with an ullage beneath the shoulder
of the bottle is unlikely to be any good. 2. The
practice of topping off wine in a barrel to keep it
full and thereby prevent excessive oxidation.
ULTRAPREMIUM A marketing term for a quality
Category.
UMAMI,UNAMI The fifth basic taste (after sweetness,
sourness, bitterness, and saltiness is the eastern concept of umami (asatisfying taste of completeness prompted by the amino acid glutamate, hence the use of monosodium
glutamate as a taste enhancer in Chinese cuisine).
Umami dates back to the early 1900s, but was given
scientific credence in 2002, when Charles Zuker and
Nick Ryber identified a taste receptor in the palate
for amino acids. The concept of umami as a basic
taste is contested by some scientists who argue
that it is artificial and created out of a complex
continuum of perceptions. Other scientists claim that
this explains all basic tastes, including sweetness,
sourness, bitterness, and saltiness. Still others
propose further basic taste sensations, such as the
taste of free fatty acids and the metallic sensation.
UNDERTONE A subtle and supporting characteristic
that does not dominate like an overtone. In a fine
wine, a strong and simple overtone of youth can
evolve into a delicate undertone with maturity,
adding to a vast array of other nuances that give
the wine complexity.
UNGENEROUS A wine that lacks generosity has little
or no fruit and also far too much tannin (if red) or
acidity for a correct and harmonious balance.
UNRIPE ACID Malic acid, as opposed to tartaric
acid or ripe acid.
UPFRONT This term suggests a wine with an
attractive, simple, immediately recognizable quality
that says it all. Such a wine may initially be
interesting, but it will not develop further and
the last glass would say nothing more about its
characteristics than the first.
UVAGGIO (It.) Wine that has been blended from
various grape varieties.
VA The abbreviation for volatile acidity.
VA LIFT A winemaking “trick” whereby the volatile
acidity is elevated to enhance the fruitiness of wine,
but it is never allowed to rise anywhere near the
level where the wine becomes unstable. Acceptable
only in wines that are ready to drink, since this
phenomenon does not improve with age.
VALUE-FOR-MONEY The difference between
penny-saving and penny-pinching, true value-formoney
can exist in a wine that costs $50 (or fifty
pounds, euros, et. al.) as much as it can in one
that costs $5, and the decision whether to buy will
depend on how deep your pocket is. It is,
however, facile to ask if the first wine is 10 times
better than the second. You can still get value-formoney
when buying a house for $1,000,000, but
will it be ten times better than a $100,000 property?
VANILLA,VANILLA-OAK Often used to describe
the nose and sometimes the palate of an oak-aged
wine, especially Rioja. It is the most basic and
obvious of oak-induced characteristics.
VANILLIN An aldehyde with a vanilla aroma that is
found naturally in oak to one degree or another.
VARIETAL,VARIETAL AROMA,VARIETAL CHARACTER
The unique and distinctive character of a single
grape variety as expressed in the wine it produces.
VC (Sp.) Short for vino comarcal, which literally
means a “local wine” and can be compared to the
vin de pays of France.
VDL A common abbreviation of vin de liqueur, a
fortified wine that is normally muted with alcohol
before fermentation can begin.
VDLT (Sp.) Short for vino de la tierra, which
literally means a “country wine,” but is closer to
the VdQS of France than its vin de pays.
VDN A common abbreviation for vin doux naturel.
This is, in fact, a fortified wine, such as Muscat de
Beaumes de Venise, that has been muted during
the fermentation process, after it has achieved a
level of between five and eight percent alcohol.
VDQS A common abbreviation for vin délimité de
qualité supérieure, which is a quality-control system
below AOC, but above vin de table and vin de pays.
VDT (It.) Short for vino da tavola. Supposedly the
lowest rung in Italy’s appellation system, it does,
however, in practice, encompass some of the
country’s greatest wines.
VEGETAL Applied to wines of a certain maturity,
often Chardonnay or Pinot, that are well rounded
in style and have taken on a bouquet pleasingly
reminiscent of vegetation, rather than fruit.
VENDANGE TARDIVE (Fr.) Late harvest.
VÉRAISON (Fr.) The ripening period, during which
the grapes do not actually change very much in
size, but do gain in color (if black) and increase in
sugar and tartaric acid, while at the same time
decreasing in unripe malic acid.
VERMOUTH An aromatized wine. The name
vermouth originates from Wermut, the German for
wormwood, which is its principal ingredient. The
earliest examples made in Germany in the 16th
century were for local consumption only, the first
commercial vermouth being Punt-é-Mes, created
by Antonio Carpano of Turin in 1786. Traditionally,
Italian vermouth is red and sweet, while French is
white and dry, but both countries make both styles.
Vermouth is made by blending very bland base
wines (they are two or three years old and come
from Apulia and Sicily in Italy and Languedoc-
Roussillon in France) with an extract of aromatic
ingredients, then sweetening the blend with sugar
and fortifying it with pure alcohol. Chambéry, a
pale and delicately aromatic wine made in the
Savoie, France, is the only vermouth with an
official appellation.
VIERTELSTÜCK (Ger.) A small oval cask with a
capacity of 300 liters (80 gallons).
VIGNERON (Fr.) Vineyard worker.
VIGNOBLE (Fr.) Vineyard.
VIGOR Although this term could easily apply to
wine, it is invariably used when discussing the
growth of a vine, and particularly of its canopy. In
order to ripen grapes properly, a vine needs about 8
square inches (50 square centimeters) of leaf surface
to every gram of fruit, but if a vine is too vigorous
(termed “high vigor”), the grapes will have an
overherbaceous character, even when they are
theoretically ripe.
VIN DE CAFÉ (Fr.) This category of French wine is
sold by the carafe in cafés, bistros, and so on.
VIN DE GARDE (Fr.) Wine that is capable of
significant improvement if it is allowed to age.
VIN DE GLACE (Fr.) French equivalent of Eiswein.
VIN DE GOUTTE (Fr.) Free-run juice. In the case of
white wine, this is the juice that runs free from the
press before the actual pressing operation begins.
With red wine, it is fermented wine drained off
from the manta or cap before this is pressed.
VIN DE L’ANNÉE (Fr.) This term is synonymous
with vin primeur.
VIN DE PAILLE (Fr.) Literally “straw wine,” a
complex sweet wine produced by leaving latepicked
grapes to dry and shrivel in the sun on
straw mats. VIN DE PAYS (Fr.) A rustic style of country wine
that is one step above vin de table, but one
beneath VdQS.
VIN DE TABLE (Fr.) Literally “table wine,” although
not necessarily a direct translation. It describes the
lowest level of wine in France and is not allowed to
give either the grape variety or the area of origin on
the label. In practice, it likely consists of various
varieties from numerous areas that have been
blended in bulk to produce a wine of consistent
character, or lack thereof, as the case may be.

VIN D’UNE NUIT (Fr.) A rosé or very pale red
wine that is allowed contact with the manta or cap
for one night only.
VIN GRIS (Fr.) A delicate, pale version of rosé.
VIN JAUNE (Fr.) This is the famous “yellow wine”
of the Jura that derives its name from its honeygold
color that results from a deliberate oxidation
beneath a sherrylike flor. The result is similar to
an aged Fino sherry, although it is not fortified.
VIN MOUSSEUX (Fr.) This literally means “sparkling
wine” without any particular connotation of quality
one way or the other. But because all fine sparkling
wines in France utilize other terms, for all practical
purposes it implies a cheap, low-quality product.
VIN NOUVEAU (Fr.) This term is synonymous with
vin primeur.
VIN ORDINAIRE (Fr.) Literally “an ordinary wine,”
this term is most often applied to a French vin de
table, although it can be used in a rather derogatory
way to describe any wine from any country.
VIN PRIMEUR Young wine made to be drunk
within the year in which it is produced. Beaujolais
Primeur is the official designation of the most
famous vin primeur, but export markets see it
labeled as Beaujolais Nouveau most of the time.
VINIFICATION Far more than simply describing
fermentation, vinification involves the entire
process of making wine, from the moment the
grapes are picked to the point at which the wine
is finally bottled.
VINIMATIC This is an enclosed, rotating
fermentation tank with blades fixed to the inner
surface, that works on the same principle as
a cement-mixer. Used initially to extract the
maximum color from the grape skins with the
minimum oxidation, it is now being utilized for
prefermentation maceration.
VINO DA TAVOLA (It.) Vin de table, table wine.
VINO DE MESA (Sp.) Table wine, vin de table.
VINO NOVELLO (It.) The same as vin primeur.
VINOUS Of, or relating to, a characteristic of wine.
When used to describe a wine, this term implies
basic qualities only.
VINTAGE 1. A wine of one year. 2. Synonymous
with harvest: a vintage wine is the wine of one
year’s harvest only (or at least 85 percent
according to EU regulations) and the year may be
anything from poor to exceptional. It is, for this
reason, a misnomer to use the term vintage for the
purpose of indicating a wine of special quality.
VITICULTURE Cultivation of the vine. Viticulture is
to grapes what horticulture is to flowers.
VITIS VINIFERA A species covering all varieties of
vines that provide classic winemaking grapes.
VIVID The fruit in some wines can be so fresh, ripe,
clean-cut, and expressive that it quickly gives a vivid
impression of complete character in the mouth.
VOLATILE ACIDS These acids, sometimes called
fatty acids, are capable of evaporating at low
temperatures. Too much volatile acidity is always a
sign of instability, but small amounts do actually
play a significant role in the taste and aroma of a
wine. Formic, butyric, and proprionic are all
volatile acids that may be found in wine, but acetic
acid and carbonic acid are the most important.
VOLATILE PHENOLS Almost one-third of all French
wines tested have volatile phenols above the level
of perception, so they are clearly not always bad.
Some volatile phenols such as ethyl-4-guaiacol
(smoky-spicy aroma) and, to a lesser degree, vinyl-
4-guaiacol (carnation aroma) can actually contribute
attractive elements to a wine’s bouquet. However,
volatile phenols are generally considered to be
faults, and the amount of ethyl and vinyl phenols
present in a wine is increased by harsh methods
of pressing (particularly the use of continuous
presses), insufficient settling, use of particular
strains of yeast, and, to a lesser extent, increased
skin-contact. Ethyl-4-phenol is responsible for the
so-called Brett off-aromas (stables, horsey, sweatysaddles—Brettanomyces), while vinyl-4-phenol
has a Band-Aid off-aroma.
VOLUPTUOUS A term used to describe a succulently
rich wine, often a red wine, which has a seductive,
mouthfilling flavor.
VQPRD A common abbreviation for vin de qualité
produit dans une région délimitée.
VR (Port.) The abbreviation for vinho regional, the
lowest rung in Portugal’s appellation system. A VR
can be compared to the regional vin de pays
category in France.
WARM,WARMTH Terms suggestive of a goodflavored
red wine with a high alcoholic content; if
these terms are used with an accompanying
description of cedary or creamy, they can mean
well-matured in oak.
WATERSHED A term used for an area where water
drains into a river system, lake, or some other
body of water.
WATERY An extreme qualification of thin.
WEISSHERBST (Ger.) A single-variety rosé wine
produced from black grapes only.
WINE LAKE A common term for the EU surplus
of low-quality table wine.
WINKLER SCALE A term synonymous with the heat
summation system.
WOOD LACTONES These are various esters that are
picked up from new oak; they may be the source of
certain creamy-oak and coconutty characteristics.
WOOD-MATURED This term normally refers to a
wine that has been aged in new oak.
YEAST A kind of fungus that is absolutely vital in
all winemaking. Yeast cells excrete a number of
yeast enzymes, some 22 of which are necessary to
complete the chain reaction that is known as
fermentation.
YEAST ENZYMES Each yeast enzyme acts as a
catalyst for one particular activity in the fermentation
process and is specific for that one task only.
YEASTY This is not a complimentary term for most
wines, but a yeasty bouquet can sometimes be
desirable in a good-quality sparkling wine,
especially if it is young.
YIELD 1. The quantity of grapes produced from a
given area of land. 2. How much juice is pressed
from this quantity of grapes. Wine people in Europe
measure yield in hl/ha (hectoliters per hectare—a
hectoliter equals 1,000 liters), referring to how much
juice has been extracted from the grapes harvested
from a specific area of land. This is fine when the
amount of juice that can be pressed from grapes is
controlled by European-type appellation systems, but
in the New World, where this seldom happens, they
tend to talk in terms of tons per acre. It can be
difficult trying to make exact conversions in the field,
particularly after a heavy tasting session, when even
the size of a ton or gallon can become quite elusive.
This is why, as a rough guide, I multiply the tons
or divide the hectoliters by 20 to convert one to
the other. This is based on the average extraction
rates for both California and Australia, which makes
it a good rule-of-thumb. Be aware that white wines
can benefit from higher yields than reds (although
sweet wines should have the lowest yields of all)
and that sparkling wines can get away with relatively
high yields. For example, Sauternes averages 25
hl/ha, Bordeaux 50 hl/ha, and Champagne 80 hl/ha.
ZESTY A lively characteristic that is suggestive of
a zippy tactile impression combined, maybe, with a
distinctive hint of citrus aroma.
ZING, ZINGY, ZIP, ZIPPY Terms that are all indicative
of something that is noteable for being refreshing,
lively, and vital in character, resulting from a high
balance of ripe fruit acidity in the wine.
VIN DE PRESSE (Fr.) Very dark, tannic, red wine
pressed out of the manta or cap, after the vin de
goutte has been drained off.